Ntombela, S. (2003) the challenge of overage children in two South African primary schools. Tomlinson, C. A., Callahan, C. M., Romchin, E. M., Eiss, N., Imbeau, M., & Landrum, M. (1997). Thus, according to Allport (1954) the three factors that have a positive influence on the intergroup contacts are equal status within the situation, common goals and authority support. The last students` socialisation with others is minimal. It would appear that regular classroom teachers view inclusive education as a decision from above, which has put them under additional pressure (Gadagbui, 2008). There was a general notion by students interviewed (Table 1) that teachers were not actively involved in helping their social life both in the classrooms and outside, so getting friends to play with is often a problem for disabled students. This involved the integration of young people with special learning needs into normal schools, without taking them out of the classroom (except in very exceptional situations), but by setting up teaching experiences adapted to all of the children, whatever their needs. The Theory of Planned Behavior and the Theory of Intergroup Contact underpin this study. I try to give them the time they need, but sometimes I stop them. Inclusive education is when all students, regardless of any challenges they may have, are placed in age-appropriate general education classes that are in their own neighborhood schools to receive high-quality instruction, interventions, and supports that enable them to meet success in the core curriculum (Bui, Quirk, Almazan, & Valenti, 2010; Alquraini & Gut, 2012). Teachers` attitudes though, deeply entrenched in the religious and cultural beliefs, is also due to the gap existing between either misinformation or lack of information or both about implementation of inclusive education policies. Teachers responded to both interviews and questionnaires, and their background information provided in Table 2. Department of Educational Foundations, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. Nine out of ten children with disabilities are out of school, and 80 percent of all children with disabilities live in developing countries. These conditions are met, to a large extent, through structured intergroup encounters that emphasize commonalities between the groups (Cook, 1978) or through contact that occurs between friends (Pettigrew,1998; Turner, Hewstone, & Voci, 2007). Group interviews were undertaken with both groups. Ghana’s Journey Towards Inclusive Education By: Auberon Jeleel Odoom 11th February, 2016 •The population is approximately 27 Cook, B. G., Tankersley, M., Cook, L., & Landrum, T. J. It has been produced to inform the finalization of the Education Sector Plan (ESP) 2018–2030 and to ensure a broad evidence base for future policymaking. International Journal of Whole schooling, 4 (1) 22-38, Kuyini, A. A teacher added; “we had only a semester (one course) training in special education the fully trained special needs education teachers are sent to special schools. From these discussions there emerged a new concept of integration called inclusive education or inclusive schools. Gadagbui, G. Y. The results showed that teachers are more positive to include students with minor mobility problems, verbal aggression as well as shy and withdrawn students than visual and hearing impairment and those with speech problems. inclusive education systems, and in line with EU and international priorities , the Agency published the Agency Position on Inclusive Education Systems (European Agency, 2015). Republic of Ghana's Policy on Inclusive Education and Definitions of Disability: Inclusive Education Policy in Ghana May 2015 Journal of Policy and Practice in … There is a common belief that merely assembling diverse groups of people together facilitates acceptance of each other. The Intergroup Contact theory posits that bringing members of opposing groups together under conditions involving cooperation, equal status, and personal acquaintance can improve attitudes toward the out-group and facilitate intergroup harmony (Pettigrew, 2011). UNESCO, 2007. UNESCO. 2. To examine why teachers implement Inclusive Education the way they do. UNESCO, Paris. United States: Prentice Hall, Inc. McClenahan, C., Cairns, E., Seamus, D. & Valerie, M. (1996). The utility of Allport’s conditions of intergroup contact for predicting perceptions of improved racial attitudes and beliefs. Ntombela, S. (2011) the progress of inclusive education in South Africa. Principals’ and Teachers’ Attitudes and Knowledge of Inclusive Education as Predictors of Effective Teaching practices in Ghana. The study will be useful in providing an understanding of how each of the study variables impact on inclusive school practices in Ghana. Stein, R. M., Post, S. S. & Rinden, A. L. (2000). Remedial and Special Education, 19, 350-363. Sharma, U. Inclusive Education Donohue & Bornman (2014) point out funding as 41 a significant barrier to the effective implementation of inclusive education in 42 South Africa. It could be inferred from teachers` responses that attitudes of teachers` to implement inclusion is related to the type of disability and severity. The phrase "inclusive education" has attracted much attention in recent years. Changes at policy level and support facilities for special needs students as an explicit concern are needed to achieve this equalization. Ad Notan Gyldendal Mastropieri, M. & Scruggs, T. (2000). Applying a descriptive design based on measurable pre-established indicators, drawn from Anastasiou and Keller’s (2011) typological framework, the authors provide a systematic description of the 2008 status of special and inclusive … Further, the study is hoped to make a significant contribution to an understanding of inclusive education practices in Ghanaian schools by identifying what needs to be done to ensure effective implementation of Inclusive Education. Measuring Concerns about Integrated Education in India. The effect is greatly enhanced if this contact is sanctioned by institutional supports” (Allport, 1954. p. 281). EFA Global Monitoring Report 2008. The nature of prejudice. Allport (1954) stated that not all types of contact between diverse groups lead to acceptance of each other. These politicians are not in the classrooms themselves so they can write what they want! Highlighting the importance of these elements, Avramidis, et al. This case study investigates the special and inclusive education in Ghana. 2. What attitudes do teachers have toward the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular classrooms? Measuring school environment and participation to support inclusive education The right to equal and quality education, initially set out in Article 28 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNICEF, 1989) and Article 24 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities , is also reinforced in the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda , adopted in September 2015. Exceptional Children, 56, 515-526. Many students interviewed reported that teachers get disappointed when they don’t get their work done and teachers do nothing to help them. We want to provide an improved quality of education for everyone. (2007). Further, the contextual realities of regular education schools including notably principals’ expectations (Kuyini & Desai, 2007; Sodak& Podell, 1994), shape the school cultures or climates for successful inclusion. At the school level, teachers must be trained, buildings must be refurbished and students must receive accessible learning materials. Favazza, P.C. This picture of Ghana’s inclusion program from the forgoing creates a crucial need for broader investigation into inclusive school practices, the nature of school-principals’ and teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion and their knowledge of inclusive education. A third student added; “As for me I have a kind and smart friend, we sit at the same desk he helps me a lot, he explains everything the teacher teaches in the classroom to me”. Celebrating and sharing my experiences and journeys of inclusive education in Ghana. In line with attitude formation theories and results from literature (Cornoldi et al., 1998; Deaux et al, 1993; Praisner, 2003) the results of this study is similar to those of Anthony, (2011), Avramidis, et al. Teachers responded to both questionnaires and interviews while students responded to interviews only. Keywords: inclusive education, implementation, teachers` attitude, Ghana, American Journal of Educational Research, 2014 2 (3), The 2008 Education For All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report, published mid-way between the Dakar World Education Forum of 2000 and the EFA target date of 2015, notes the substantial progress made towards universal enrolment and gender parity in primary education in developing countries. Muthukrishna, N., Farman, R. & Sader, S. (2000) the inclusion of children with Down syndrome in ordinary schools: a South African experience. & Jordan, A. However, an examination of literature and practice shows that the term has come to mean different things to different people. Finally, teachers appear to believe that they have had no choice about and no part in the process of inclusion in Ghanaian schools. Inclusion: A guide for educators. (2008). Three themes of disabilities emerged from the responses of teachers; physical/social, visual/hearing and intellectual disabilities (Table 3). Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 537-540. One of the two teachers observed in the classroom was female and the other one a male teacher. In the field of inclusive education this theory is without doubt of great importance. Vaughn, S., Hogan, A., Kouzekanani, K., & Shapiro, S. (1990). The Hidden Crisis: Armed Conflict and Education, EFA Global Monitoring Report 2011. Inclusive education, as defined in the Salamanca Statement3 entails “recognition of the need to work towards “schools for all” - institutions which include everybody, celebrate (Kuyini & Desai 2009) study of attitudes toward including students with disabilities into mainstream schools in Australia found that, teacher attitudes had increased in a positive way. Political Research Quarterly, 53 (2). This is followed by a comprehensive … Inclusive systems require changes at all levels of society. Cross-cultural perspective. The Community-based Rehabilitation Programme in Ghana: In UNESCO, (1994) Examples of good practice in special needs education & community-based programmes. 4. Studies by Wilczenski (1992, 1995), in the USA and Muthukrishna (2000) in South Africa also found that teachers were more willing to include students with social deficits than any other type of disability such as language disabilities. These findings raise concerns regarding the implementation of the Inclusive Education Program in Ghana, Anthony (2011), Ofori-Addo (1994) and O’Toole, Hofslett, Bupuru, Ofori-Addo, & Kotoku (1996). Studies have revealed that teachers` attitudes toward students with disabilities are different, and these various differences/reasons are dependent on schools` practices of inclusion. Emerging themes from interviews was coded and analysed with the respondents. In other words, are schools restructured, re-oriented and re-organised to create school norms /climates conducive for inclusive education? Education for All by 2015. However, a student's level of disability may emerge as a factor shaping the attitudes of teachers to the inclusion of special needs students. Citation-(RIS Group interviews were undertaken for reasons of contact and interactions reflecting Allport`s Theory of contact (1954), where opposing groups are put together to generate useful information for textual analysis on intergroup relationships (Favvaza & Odom, 1997; Kennedy, Shukla & Fryxell, 1997; McClenahan, Cairns et al., 1996; Pettigrew, 1998; Stein, Post & Rinden, 2000; Wittig & Grant-Thompson, 1998). As one of the teachers put; How can we teach a child with language problems? These findings are consistent with research studies which point to a generally positive view held by teachers in mainstream settings regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. 15, No. B. Some call us names which we don’t like said another student and sometimes I don’t feel like playing because other students tease me and teachers don’t do anything to stop those who bully us. © Copyright 2020 European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education All Rights Reserved | Terms of use. & Desai, I. The implementation of public policy coupled with teacher attitudes toward persons with disabilities in Ghana has been saddled with problems. Gyimah, E. K. 2010. Towards the development of inclusive education in one district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Further, the study is hoped to make a significant contribution to an understanding of inclusive education practices in Ghanaian schools by identifying what needs to be done to ensure effective implementation of Inclusive Education. According to one of the interviewees, students with severe disabilities would pose problem to effective teaching because they take a lot of time and that is unfair for non-disable students. This means that the more teachers and principals know about inclusive education the more they have a positive attitude towards it. Baker, J. M., & Zigmond, N. (1990). Teachers are more negative to include students with speech disorders and students who need professional skills to read and write In this regard this study confirms the works of (Avramids, et al 2000; Kuyini & Desai, 2008; Stanovich, & Jordon, 2002). However over 69 million children are still out of primary school, the quality of learning in many countries remains low and many significant social, geographic and other inequities remain, including those associated with disability (UNESCO, 2007, 2011). Wilczenski, F. (1992). I don’t really know how to deal with these problems without help from colleagues. The economy of the pre-colonial Gold Coast was dependent on subsistence farming, in which farm produce was shared within households, and members … A JHS slow learner said he was supposed to be in JHS 3 but that he was repeated. I can`t even hear what they say. The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for effective Instruction. It means all learners are welcomed by their local early learning service and school, and are supported to play, learn, contri… Detailed data is related concerning prevalence and incidence rates and special needs among the Ghana population. Exceptional Children, 63, 269-282. Studies in Ghana, by Gyima, (2010), Ofori-Addo, Worgbeyi and Tay (1999) identified some key challenges, similar to those reported earlier by O’Toole, et al. Inclusive Education in Ghana An Analysis of Policies and the Practices in One Mainstream School and One Inclusive School in the Greater Accra Region Ida Marie Brandt Pekeberg Master thesis M.Phil. In The International Journal on School Disaffection, 1 (1) 36-44. A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Accra: Ghana Publishing Corporation. Intergroup Contact Theory is used intensively by researchers to reduce tension among groups (Brown & Hewstone, 2005; Dovidio et al., 2003; Pettigrew, 1998), and, indeed, there is impressive evidence that positive contact is associated with more favorable attitudes toward the out-group (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). Ofori-Addo, L. (1994). Results were discussed with respondents to enhance reliability. The Education … Increased concern has resulted as teachers feel that they have not been given any guidelines or directives about including students with disabilities into mainstream classrooms (Ntombela, 2003, 2009, 2011). The Intergroup Contact Theory states that the nature of contact between two groups determines the social acceptance / rejection of the minority group members (Allport, 1954). 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