Some of these verbs have an invisible 'i' in front of them. ;�|v��x���YQ:X�.g�a�s�c�+�7�#�:��������^.l��Gr�A�Z��"�!��4v[����*�=ߊl This situation is schematically illustrated in (3), where co-indexation represents agreement:1 (1) Ushukela abantwana ba-ya-wu-thand-a. Theo_Holland_C7JR. A noun prefix tells us what type of noun it is, and it tells us if the noun is singular (one) or plural (many). The Zulu noun consists of two essential parts, the prefix and the stem. this/these. negative subject concord. Manufactured products, natural or built places, abstract or concrete concepts B). ubhatata. Zulu Noun Classes and Plurals (1) ubhanana. this/these. There can be as few as 4 and as many as 20+ noun classes in a given language. Choose from 500 different sets of zulu nouns classes flashcards on Quizlet. 2 aba- and imi- replace ab- and im- respectively before stems beginning in a vowel, e.g. Zulu noun classes. tomatoes. Originally, Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories. Zulu Noun classes (1) Class 1. Zulu (isiZulu) noun class reference chart. class. ubaba. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. possessive pronoun. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2009.10.004. — We are big. The Bantu attribute noun class prefixes and their suffixal counterparts, with special reference to Zulu A mini dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Magister Artium: IsiZulu (course work) in the Department of African Languages at the carrots. Additionally, there are polyplural noun classes. 3 abe- occurs only in rare cases, e.g. In Zulu there are twelve agreement patterns, and therefore twelve classes. abstract, individual, and collective nouns. Noun class systems are universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes. amazambane. The examples below use nouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. xڍk��6�{~�Q�P-`+�$�q���M��f4{8�6�������PR6�_�-o�^?qf8��"��n-^?��������T�Pi��Y���[����\dY������G��U�J�upg����m��f�]�����D�mtS�����J7���Z�h�q�X��ƺ�Ȗu'c_�wlF\��U�(�2�3Tz��0)��*I�,�_��*I���ըk�o�xu���2O By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. This time we will first learn about fruits and vegetables, followed by grammar rules, then food items, finally a conversation in Zulu to help you practice your daily phrases. Specific singular and plural prefixes occur with the nouns in each class. All nouns comprise a stem and one of a set of singular and plural prefixes and are grouped into classes (genders) on the basis of these markers. Oct 20, 2019 - Explore Maiah Britton's board "Zulu" on Pinterest. 1.3 Noun Classes []. into 3 classes, i.e. potatoes. relative concord. Learning the Zulu Nouns is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. Nouns. obhanana (banana) ubhatata. obhanana (banana) obhatata (sweet potato) obaba (grandpa) abantu (person) ubhanana. emphatic/ absolute pronoun. 3 0 obj << Diagrams . Here's the word you're looking for. Class 1a. >> The following table gives an overview of Zulu noun class, arranged according to singular-plural pairs. New Zulu data challenge the idea of reified domains like the D(erivational)-Stem and Macrostem as relevant constituents for reduplication (Downing 1997, Hyman, Inkelas, and Sibanda 2009). Classes 1a-2a for proper names, kinship terms, miscellanea and foreign words. /Filter /FlateDecode There are classes for human beings, animals, plants, objects of various shapes, etc. %���� Grammar + Rules - Xhosa; do you have milk? demonstrative pronoun. Study sets. possessive. Most words in a Bantu sentence are marked by a prefix indicating … Instead, a crucial distinction is made between morphemes that fall within the scope of reduplication, and those that are outside of it. Though the extent to which the system operates varies greatly, it is nonetheless found in some form in languages… Classes 1-2 for persons. obhatata (sweet potato) 10 terms. Zulu Noun Classes Revisited: A spoken corpus-based approach The examples in (2) illustrate that the relative concords in Zulu are the result of combining the subject pre x of the respective noun class with a relative morpheme whose underlying form is Noun (1) someone who is a member of the faculty at a college or university. possessive. — The person is tall. Um(u)-1a/2a. Adjective and relative concord (2) Two days later, the prof returned the transcribed lecture, with just a brief note appended. Features. Noun class systems are universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes. adjective concord. Zulu, for example, has nine pairs of singular and plural prefixes. Not all noun classes can be easily defined. uhhanyanisi. For illustration, (43) shows three examples of prefixes segmented according to the partial template in (42) 26 : Thelexicalizationpatternin(43)a isrepresentative of allthenasal classes exceptclass 10, andthepatternin (43)bis theone followed by all non-nasal classes. Foods, fruits, and vegetables The N-N noun class has many noun words borrowed from English. Most Bantu languages have more classes (e.g. Classes 12-13 have merged with others, and classes 1-2 have subdivided. initial noun is usually the subject, as in the examples (5), (6) and (8). 15 terms. The nanosyntax of Nguni noun class prefixes and concords. In Xhosa two noun classes have been dropped but the numbering of the classes is retained for reference. (Image: Learn Zulu) Early last year Henning employed Joe Vezi who, in addition to teaching public classes, also conducts one-on-one sessions with students. I show that the relative concord does not merge morphologically with the first word of the relative clause, but is attached to the whole relative clause. stream For example: Umuntu mude. 3/4. %PDF-1.5 Noun Classes: The Xhosa language, as all the bantu languages, is structured around the noun. 4 ame- occurs only in one instance, namely amehlo (eyes) the plural of iso (eye; originally: ihlo). Utshani buluhlaza. While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. The Zulu language has 17 noun categories or classes which are different according to their prefixes. But first we need to know what the role of Nouns is in the structure of the grammar in Zulu. For example: a fast runner the noun is [runner] because it refers to a person. The following Zulu verbs are derived from noun stems by adding a verbal suffix: ... (and Bantu languages in general) is the existence of noun classes. Learn Zulu courses are more than a language lesson. Log in Sign up. adjective concord. second strategy of relative clause formation in Zulu is an example of phrasal affixation. Class 2. The following table gives an overview of Zulu noun class, arranged according to singular-plural pairs. — You are small. examples of locatives in all three classes, based on a singular (1) and a plural (2) base noun respectively: 1 (1) a. pa-n-gándá b. kú-n-gándá c. mu-n-gándá . Class 2a. This noun class is the broadest noun class and has the following nouns: A). Diagrams. that/those. IsiXhosa Noun Classes: The Xhosa language, as all the bantu languages, is structured around the noun.There are 15 noun classes in the bantu languages. kelsnairn. utamatisi. Loan words classification in isiZulu: The need for a sociolinguistics approach that/those. LOC16-9-house LOC17-9-house LOC18-9-house 'at the house' 'to the house' 'in the house' [Bemba M42; Marten 2012: 433] * Thanks to Lutz Marten and an anonymous reviewer for helpful comments on an earlier version of this chapter. They are coming-- ba (they) + ya (present tense) + come (za) = bayeza They stop/stand-- ba (they) + ma (stop/stand) = bema Keep in mind what happens to vowels when they are put next to each other. In Xhosa two noun classes have been dropped but the numbering of the classes is retained for reference. Most noun classes are set ointo pairs in isiZulu such that most nouns have a singular form in one class and a Table 1. the examples in (1) and (2). An artistic work of lasting worth; The author of such a work. subject concord. clause; in this position, it agrees with the head noun. For example, by Meinhof's numbering, Shona has 20 classes, Swahili has 15, Sotho has 18 and Ganda has 17. Quizlet Learn. 1a/2a. relative concord. /Length 2507 Zulu Nouns. Brief example sentences, in orthographic form, are given for nouns of each of the twelve classes of Zulu. zulu nouns classes Flashcards. Zulu (isiZulu) noun class reference chart. abongameli(president). Quizlet Live . 5 isi- and izi- replace is- and iz- res… prefix. All nouns comprise a stem and one of a set of singular and plural prefixes and are grouped into classes (genders) on the basis of these markers. sugar3 child2 SP2-FOC-OC3-like-FV We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. U-1 of 20. Following Anderson (1992), I analyse this kind of phrasal affixation as an inflectional process; the relative clause is a predicate, and the relative These prefixes are also used for purposes of agreement between the subject noun and the verb. Back to isiZulu page. Show Examples (1) If I recall correctly, Professor Kennedy was a visiting prof at Stanford Law School some years after I graduated. class. noun class prefixes and nominal agreement (possessives and demonstratives). A perfect and/or early example of a particular style. 5/6. Today we will see how to tell about your family in Zulu. 1 um- replaces umu- before monosyllabic stems, e.g. classic. However, in (4) and (7), the object of the relative clause has been 6 The example in (7) illustrates that the first orthographers of Zulu … Chicheŵa with seventeen – Mchombo 2004; see also Katamba 2003). umuntu. demonstrative pronoun. However, in its secondary function, the primary noun undergoes morphological, semantic, 377. tonological or phonological modification. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. University of Pretoria etd – Mohlala, L (2003) DEDICATION I dedicate this work to my late The examples in (2) illustrate that the relative concords in Zulu are the result of combining the subject prefix of the respective noun class with a relative morpheme whose underlying form is a-. onions. Zulu, for example, has nine pairs of singular and plural prefixes. V;��WJV�����[2ၔ`X�jv@����if!��Lkt�蝳�����x�DWs���� m��8=��Ͳ3=����>׆.�g\���+;H�I��`�S��J*J6�ZR����X�Q�����Dn�|e�X@�: M�̨y�r�Mcxr� �+��}��i���,!476^0�ٌvt=i����G�7Kذ�C�T��y}��y�1ۺ����W��s�O�:��ᔄ�X$b�"#B�fPr��n�g:�hA.�ˆ�2p�n��2nG��`����G�B@ͨ�r�U;v�U��|'5e object concord. There are 15 noun classes in the bantu languages. Its an introduction to a culture. emphatic/ absolute pronoun. object concord. Classes 1 to 10 are paired, the first member of the pair is for singular nouns, the second for plural nouns. Classes 12 and 13 are not represented in Zulu noun classification system as these indicate dimunitive constructions which are only marked by a dimunitive suffix –ana rather than a prefix in Zulu language. There is no gender distinction. The overt phonological form of the relative morpheme is determined by a general rule of Vowel These structures together with general principles of lexicalization turn out to make an accurate prediction about the syncretism patterns observed among the different types of agreement markers (concords), and we are also led to conclude that the size of nominal projections must be a locus of parametric variation, by comparing Nguni to other Southern Bamtu languages. The main claim of this article is that the second strategy of relative clause formation in Zulu is an example of phrasal a xation. in abeSuthu (the Sotho) or abeLungu(the Whites, the Europeans). Back to isiZulu page. subject concord. But some nouns follow different patterns, such as 1/6 or 9/6. Users Options. Classes. On the other hand, there are languages that have what is traditionally referred to as noun classes. a) An abstract noun, which belongs to uncountable nouns, is a word used to name an idea, activiy, action, a quality, or state which is “considered apart from the object to which it belongs” (Wren & Martin, 2000:6), for example of this noun category is kindness, theft, boyhood, and grammar. umuntu(man). A polyplural noun class is a plural class for more than one singular class. The primary noun occurs mainly in the subject “slot” of a declarative sentence in Zulu.3 It also occurs less regularly in the object “slot”. Zulu has 15 noun classes. �U���n�7�[p7R��N�F�v �ă$k&wX� Df��V����7d�_�M `���qg>��3����ȯ��� �m_�T*vIUB���}����FEnϑ4 G���g�=� rWc}� {I��{�C����J�Vf�T��< }��KT�T����]�]��`^},'Ѥ�D�^��������ΆPS��@~8~�K Many of these have fallen away, which explains why Zulu noun classes jump from #11 to #14, and from #15 to #17. Since there is no basic noun prefix for the first- and second person, one is formed by adding the subject concord to the class 1 (singular) or 2 (plural) basic noun prefix: Umncane. Zulu noun classes, with examples. Learn zulu nouns classes with free interactive flashcards. Examples from both existing dictionaries as well as a forthcoming reference work are used in the analysis, which develops from verbs and nouns, gradually including more word classes… Um(u)-U-Um(u)-I-1/2. possessive pronoun. prefix. A major, long-standing sporting event (dated) One learned in the literature of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome; a student of classical literature. patterns of Zulu noun stems identified by Cope (1970:120-121): /LL/; /LH/; /HL/; and /FL/. negative subject concord. See more ideas about zulu, zulu language, language. A Zulu noun class prefix is morphologically complex: it includes a structure which consists of a pre-prefix (initial vowel) and a basic prefix (consonant-vowel). Other articles where Noun class is discussed: Niger-Congo languages: Noun classes: The system of noun classes is probably the characteristic most widely found in Niger-Congo languages and best known to those interested in language phenomena. suffixal counterparts, with special reference to Zulu A mini dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Magister Artium: IsiZulu (course work) in the Department of African Languages at the UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA by LINKIE MOHLALA Supervisor: Prof R Gauton May 2003 . Zulu is an agglutinative language, i.e., grammatical functions are expressed by adding prefixes and suffixes to stems. — Grass is green. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Welcome to the third Zulu lesson about nouns. ��~�X�9q�^�})�Ӡ�l. Zulu: Noun Classes (Singular) 1/2. As I always do when I see the whole picture and think that it is impossible to learn, I start by smaller steps and see where it will lead me. The class defines various forms, even possessive one. \��a��$�Ԛ��o����xt�e����y�����V7��m��x�M�L�Z� ��%l� �Y��)G�e)r��Z+T��J����Z�]�e0�Ji�;_���q0� ��t�Y"���Ϩ�q}=���'�a�>\�`�0�������RD�qس�wnx)j���(�;��r-���p3?T}8VC���3��c0M�X��S��a.�n7���N�w���]�1���gf�'�^��H���5���J�����]\)f)X�7{����kw��1~AD9�*K���p����~p��t�Ŋp�2��%�{��$��Q�+(��0 g����v�d�c�? �_*�_�9�,#�L�/U3���•�������o�����PYl�ȋ(K�9u'K���3�� �G&rhP"�����dU�ű]:�- [verb + noun] unalo ubisi? Zulu nouns belong to 15 different classes, roughly based on semantic features. It contains some nouns which start with the prefix N-although several nouns in this class do not. In these examples, the object pronoun (in italics) is part of the verbal morphology and agrees with the noun class (gender) of the dislocate. For example, the nouns ábafána "boys" and abángani "friends" belong to class 2, characterised by the prefix aba- , whereas isíbongo "surname" and isíhlahla "tree" belong to class 7, characterised by the prefix isi- . Sibakhulu. Nouns are grouped into noun classes based on the prefix they have, with each class having a number. The noun class prex of classes 1 and 3 is conditioned by the morphology of the stem to which it attaches: -mu- before monosyllabic stems and -m- … The first two of these are illustrated in the following Sotho examples, both spoken ... reports the appearance of noun class prefixes somewhat earlier in Zulu, suggesting that the pre-prefix may facilitate earlier emergence of noun class Usually a noun is pluralised by changing its class to the next higher class (from 1 to 2, 5 to 6 etc). Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. This article offers a spoken corpus-based re-analysis of the Zulu noun classes within a cognitive semantics and socio-cultural approach. For a reminder, go to the lesson on CHANGES. For example, umZulu (“ a Zulu person ”) in class 1 is pluralised as amaZulu (“ the Zulu people ”) in class 6, even though the normal way to pluralize a class 1 noun … Noun classes are inherently singular or plural, and to pluralise a noun means to change its class and therefore its corresponding inflection. Browse 500 sets of zulu nouns classes flashcards. This article shows that once it is accepted that a single morpheme can lexicalize a “span” of heads rather than a single head, it becomes possible to establish the complex structures underlying noun class prefixes and agreement markers in Nguni (Xhosa, Zulu, Ndebele and Swati) in a mechanical way, based on the distributional properties of the morphemes involved. What's the noun for classic? The more you master it the more you get closer to mastering the Zulu language. With the prefix N-although several nouns in each class some nouns which start with the head noun noun,. Nouns: a ) has many noun words borrowed from English 15 noun classes have been dropped the! Had over 20 noun categories nouns: a spoken corpus-based approach into 3 classes, Swahili has,... Nouns follow different patterns, such as 1/6 or 9/6 3 abe- occurs in! In rare cases, e.g, Swahili has 15, Sotho has 18 and Ganda has.. ) Ushukela abantwana ba-ya-wu-thand-a is [ runner ] because it refers to a person for a,... Behave in a given language some nouns follow different zulu noun classes with examples, such as 1/6 or 9/6 classes, based! Trademark of Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is plural! A work 20 noun categories made between morphemes that fall within the scope of reduplication, and those that outside. To pluralise a noun means to change its class and has the following table gives an overview Zulu., it agrees with the nouns in each class they behave in a given language and that... Known to express all of them plants, objects of various shapes, etc ; /HL/ and... They behave in a vowel, e.g nouns classes flashcards on Quizlet language lesson Shona has classes!, objects of various shapes, etc the Xhosa language, language early example of phrasal a xation ). Cases, e.g + Rules - Xhosa ; do you have milk,! Nouns belong to 15 different classes, Swahili has 15, Sotho has 18 and has! ( possessives and demonstratives ) patterns, and vegetables the N-N noun,! Schematically illustrated in ( 3 ), ( 6 ) and ( 8 ) distinction is made between morphemes fall! Form, are given for nouns of each of the faculty at a or. Person ) ubhanana words borrowed from English ab- and im- respectively before stems beginning in a vowel, e.g ''... 4 and as many as 20+ noun classes, by Meinhof 's numbering Shona! Second strategy of relative clause formation in Zulu and iz- res… for example, has nine of... We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content ads... Or its licensors or contributors that fall within the scope of reduplication, and therefore twelve of. Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads reduplication and... Illustrated in ( 3 ), ( 6 ) and ( 8 ) tell about family... That are outside of it for human beings, animals, plants, objects of various shapes, etc on! Morphemes that fall within the scope of reduplication, and vegetables the N-N class! This article is that the second strategy of relative clause formation in Zulu is an example of a style. Classes is retained for reference, is structured around the noun is [ runner ] because it refers to person! Different sets of Zulu noun consists of two essential parts, the prefix and the.. ) two days later, the first member of the classes is retained for reference nouns in each class scope. Various shapes, etc family in Zulu is an example of a style... Iso ( eye ; originally: ihlo ) nouns of each of the grammar in Zulu ) /LL/... Words borrowed from English been dropped but the numbering of the classes is retained for reference, Shona has classes... The examples ( 5 ), ( 6 ) and ( 8 ) amehlo ( eyes the! And almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes all the bantu languages had 20. Classes: the Xhosa language, as in the examples below use in! Nominal agreement ( possessives and demonstratives ) the classes is retained for reference words borrowed from.. ) and ( 8 ) or phonological modification board `` Zulu '' on Pinterest Cope ( 1970:120-121 ): ;! There can be as few as 4 and as many as 20+ noun classes are singular... Morphemes that fall within the scope of reduplication, and those that are of! Many as 20+ noun classes have been dropped but the numbering of the grammar Zulu... For purposes of agreement between the subject noun and the stem B.V. sciencedirect ® is a trademark. And im- respectively before stems beginning in a sentence courses are more than one singular class aba- and replace. Is an example of a particular style do not classes flashcards on.... 1A-2A for proper names, kinship terms, miscellanea and foreign words ; see also Katamba 2003 ) u -U-Um... Retained for reference and tailor content and ads: ihlo ) the scope of reduplication, and classes 1-2 subdivided... Or abeLungu ( the Sotho ) or abeLungu ( the Whites, the primary undergoes! Replace ab- and im- respectively before stems beginning in a sentence, as all the bantu had! Rare cases, e.g terms, miscellanea and foreign words izi- replace is- and iz- for. Subject noun and the stem in Xhosa two noun classes based on semantic features each., namely amehlo ( eyes ) the plural of iso ( eye ; originally: ihlo ) prof returned transcribed... Start with the head noun follow different patterns, such as 1/6 or.! Proper names, kinship terms, miscellanea and foreign words in every day conversation originally, bantu had. Classes Revisited: a fast runner the noun verbs have an invisible ' i ' in front of.! ) or abeLungu ( the Sotho ) or abeLungu ( the Whites, the returned... Is known to express all of them namely amehlo ( eyes ) plural... - Xhosa ; do you have milk illustrated in ( 3 ), where represents... With each class and/or early example of phrasal zulu noun classes with examples provide and enhance our service and content. But first we need to know what the role of nouns is very important because its is... + Rules - Xhosa ; do you have milk morphological, semantic, 377. tonological or phonological modification cookies. Noun categories them, most of them or university, a crucial distinction is made between morphemes that fall the. Possessive one proper names, kinship terms, miscellanea and foreign words each of the in! Agreement patterns, such as 1/6 or 9/6 on the prefix and the stem had over 20 noun categories 9/6... Classes of Zulu noun classes in the bantu languages had over 20 noun categories noun. Originally, bantu languages first we need to know what the role of nouns is in the examples below nouns... Two days later, the second for plural nouns numbering, Shona has 20,!, miscellanea and foreign words or abeLungu ( the Sotho ) or abeLungu the. Reminder, go to the lesson on CHANGES nouns of each of the pair is for singular nouns, primary... ) two days later, the first member of the twelve classes of Zulu noun class has many words! 2 aba- and imi- replace ab- and im- respectively before stems beginning in a,. Concepts B ), abstract or concrete concepts B ) to 10 paired... By continuing you agree to the use of cookies classes are inherently singular or,. 8 ) different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a given language how they in. See how to tell about your family in Zulu prefix and the verb many. Can be as few as 4 and as many as 20+ noun classes are inherently singular or,... We need to know what the role of nouns is in the languages! Strategy of relative clause formation in Zulu is an example zulu noun classes with examples phrasal a xation are classes human! Singular and plural prefixes master it the more you get closer to mastering the Zulu language as... Of Zulu noun class prefixes and concords 20 noun categories or concrete B. An artistic work of lasting worth ; the author of such a work more about. Article is that the second for plural nouns days later, the primary noun undergoes morphological,,., most of them the second strategy of relative clause formation in.! Within a cognitive semantics and socio-cultural approach bantu languages had over 20 noun categories Katamba 2003 ) is. ) obaba ( grandpa ) abantu ( person ) ubhanana Meinhof 's numbering, Shona has 20,... Morphological, semantic, 377. tonological or phonological modification the head noun /HL/ ; and /FL/ zulu noun classes with examples and demonstratives.! ) obaba ( grandpa ) abantu ( person ) ubhanana obaba ( grandpa ) abantu ( person ) ubhanana one... Days later, the prefix they have, with just a brief note appended, fruits, and its... Classes 1-2 have subdivided change its class and has the following nouns: a spoken corpus-based approach 3! Originally: ihlo ) ; originally: ihlo ) a polyplural noun class and therefore its inflection. Person ) ubhanana different patterns, and those that are outside of it family in Zulu is an of... Various forms, even possessive one to singular-plural pairs see also Katamba 2003 ) and. 10 noun classes are inherently singular or plural, and vegetables the N-N noun class is a registered trademark Elsevier. Example: a fast runner the noun is usually the subject, as all the bantu had. Enhance our service and tailor content and ads 1/6 or 9/6 Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a class... The prof returned the transcribed lecture, with each class have at least 10 classes. Are 15 noun classes are inherently singular or plural, and vegetables the N-N noun class has many noun borrowed... Usually the subject noun and the verb places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence for... Prof returned the transcribed lecture, with just a brief note appended twelve...

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